A.3.1 Distinguish between the composition of human milk and artificial milk used for bottle-feeding babies.
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A.3.2 Discuss the benefits of breastfeeding.
A.3.3 Outline the causes and symptoms of type II diabetes.
Link to 6.5.11 and 6.5.12
Diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes) is also known as adult-onset diabetes as it generally manifests in adulthood. Receptors on the liver become resistant to insulin produced by the pancreas, leading to complications with blood sugar control.
Obesity, and prolonged intake of high-energy foods can cause the receptors in the liver to ‘wear out’ or become resistant to insulin.
There is a very strong link with obesity. As the obesity epidemic increases, the age of adult-onset diabetes is also decreasing.
Genetics also plays a role. Some people are genetically more susceptible to developing type II diabetes and should use their family history as an indicator and take preventative measures – largely a balanced diet and exercise.
Glucose in the urine as the kidney is unable to reabsorb all of the glucose back into the blood.
Deyhdration as water-balance is disrupted, coupled with excessive urination.
Weight loss as insulin is less able to store fat. Sleep loss and tiredness are also symptoms.
Blurred vision and potential blindness.
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A.3.4 Explain the dietary advice that should be given to a patient who has developed type II diabetes.
Type II diabetes can be controlled through careful diet and healthy lifestyle. An obese or overweight patient would be advised to reduce their weight and exercise more.
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A.3.5 Discuss the ethical issues concerning the of eating of animal food products, including honey, eggs, milk and meat.
Animal products are a major component of the human diet, though they are not without their ethical concerns. As populations grow, demand for food increases, including meat and animal products. Concerns arise with regard to ethical treatment of animals and environmental sustainability.
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A.3.6 Evaluate the benefits of reducing dietary cholesterol in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease.
Link with 1.1.6, 2.4, 6.2.2
Cholesterol is needed in small amounts in the body to produce hormones and plasma membranes. In excess it is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis by forming deposits in the arteries. Rupture of plaques can cause clots, or CHD. However, this is a paradigm that is being challenged and it highlight the correlation-cause argument.
In a review of studies, it has been suggested that the link between dietary cholesterol intake and CHD is not logical, and that the more likely cause of CHD is a diet high in saturated fats. Diets high in saturated fats tend to be high in cholesterol, so there is a correlation without necessarily causation.
With moderate cholesterol intake, the body is able to remove excess with no harmful effect – dietary cholesterol is not necessarily converted into plasma cholesterol. Plasma cholesterol can be HDL (not harmful), or LDL (plaque-forming).
Extreme intakes may lead to a greater buildup of LDL in atherosclerosis. Although there is a small risk of cholesterol leading to CHD, the risks of smoking, inactivity and heredity are much stronger and more closely related to CHD.
Although a cholesterol-controlled diet may slow or reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, it must be combined with a healthy diet and lifestyle if it is to have a significant effect on reducing the risk of CHD.
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A.3.7 Discuss the concept of food miles and the reasons for consumers choosing foods to minimize food miles.
Link to 5.2
Food miles are a measure of the distance a food product travels from ’plough to plate’.
It is an indicator of the environmental impact of the foods we eat, as this travel involves costs in fuel, emissions, packaging and time: the further a product travels, the less sustainable it is.
Some imported foods cost more in energy per gram for their transport than they provide for the consumer.
Some consumers prefer to choose locally grown or farmed food products to reduce the costs, use of packaging and preservatives, use of oil/fuel and emissions. They may also hope to encourage outlets to use local providers of produce rather than imported goods.